How DNA Is Copied
DNA is a molecule that is double-stranded, which means it has two strands that run in opposite directions. It is a large molecule with a diameter of approximately 2 nanometers. Each strand contains nucleotides. These nucleotides are made up of phosphate groups and deoxyribose sugar. They are attached to each other by hydrogen bonds.
In order to understand how DNA works, it is necessary to know how it is structured. It has a three-dimensional shape that is similar to a ladder. This structure has also led to the discovery of how DNA is copied.
The structure of the DNA is called the double helix. The helix has four nitrogenous bases, which form rungs. Adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G) make up each of the rungs. All living things share a similar ratio of A-to-T.
The helix has a major groove at its center, with a smaller gap at the outside. The DNA strands twist around each other, like a spiral staircase, while holding together by hydrogen bonds. When the hydrogen bonds break, the new strands can then join the old strands.
In order to replicate the DNA, special enzymes are used. These enzymes move up the ladder. The strand on the left has a phosphate group at the top. On the right, there is a hydroxyl group at the top.
These ring carbons are labeled from the 1' nitrogenous base to the 5' phosphate group. Base pairing is very important for copying the DNA.